Can Supplements Cure Erectile Dysfunction And Improve Libido?
Because erectile dysfunction and a lackluster libido can be caused by deficiencies of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or other essential nutrients. These deficiencies can be restored with supplements.
Many herbal supplements have been used successfully for thousands of years and by several different cultures, to boost sexual desire and improve sexual functions.
It would be strange if there was nothing to them, no? Let’s explore.. 🤔
How Do Supplements Boost Your Sex Drive And Help You Get Erections?
Before we get into how the supplements can improve sexual functions, let’s first distinguish between the two main categories of supplements:
Basic and advanced.
Examples of basic supplements are: A multi-vitamin formula, fish oil, a calcium supplement, or a B12 supplements.
These supplements are intended to cover deficiencies of basic nutrients in your body. A deficiency of a basic nutrient, by the way, can cause ED and libido problems.
The advanced supplements on the other hand, aim at improving your sexual functions by (normally) targeting your testosterone, dopamine or nitric oxide production. These supplements are often herbal, but they can also be synthetic.
Let’s first talk about the basic supplements.
The Basic Supplements For Erectile Dysfunction And Libido
If you don’t eat enough of the right foods, you are likely to be deficient in certain vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or other essential nutrients.
And if so, your body will normally not work as well as it could, or should.
This can impact many sides of your life, such as your energy level, your immune system, your memory, your concentration, your muscle recovery times, etc.
And it can also impact your sexual functions.
Therefore, if you are deficient in one or more essential nutrients, you may find it more difficult to ‘get it up’, and your sex drive may be lower than normal.
Research studies have shown that it is particularly common to be deficient of one or more of the following:
|Vitamin A||Vitamin C||Iodine|
|Vitamin B12||Vitamin D||Iron|
|Folate (B9)||Vitamin E||Magnesium|
|Niacin (B3)||Vitamin K2||Potassium|
The good news is that most of these nutrients can be supplied simply by eating healthy foods.
And I want to make a very important point:
I prefer to get all my nutrients from foods and drinks, rather than from supplements.
For me, natural is much better than a supplement. The original source will typically always be better.
In addition, with natural foods and drinks, I will also get other healthy ingredients such as phytonutrients, fiber, antioxidants, etc.
However, it’s not always possible, nor practical, to get all the essential nutrients from foods and drinks.
Therefore, I also take supplements.
What Basic Supplements Do I Take?
I used to take a multi-vitamin formula containing most of the essential vitamins and minerals I need. But I no longer do this. I now eat super healthy and try to get all these nutrients from foods.
Vitamin B12 is produced by a bacteria that covers planet earth. And by eating fruits and vegetables that contain a little dirt, or by drinking water from a lake or pond, we would normally have ingested vitamin B12.
We wash all our foods, and there is normally chlorine in our drinking killing all the bacteria. Hence, we don’t get much vitamin B12 the natural way.
Meat and dairy also contain some vitamin B12.
Since I don’t eat meat or dairy products, and because my food is essentially devoid of vitamin B12, I take a vitamin B12 supplement.
Vitamin D is found in some foods, but very few of these foods contain large amounts of this vitamin. Hence, it’s difficult to get enough vitamin D from what you eat (and drink).
However, your body can produce this vitamin D. When sunlight falls on your skin, cholesterol in your skin’s outer layer is converted to vitamin D3.
And since it is difficult to get enough vitamin D from foods, you need the sun to provide the balance.
I therefore try to get good amounts of sunshine when I can. And not only for Vitamin D production, but sunshine is also healthy for many other reasons.
I have actually even moved to a sunnier place to get more of it. 😊
However, in the winter months when I get less sunshine, I also take a vitamin D supplement.
During periods with lots of exercise, I also take a supplement containing zinc and magnesium. The reason is that the body flushes out substantial amounts of zinc magnesium during exercise.
And I also take an iodine supplement, as it is likely I don’t get enough iodine from the foods I eat.
Let’s move on to the advanced supplements.
The Advanced Supplements For Erectile Dysfunction And Libido
So I try to get all the nutrients I need primarily from foods and drinks. And then I cover deficiencies with basic supplements.
However, when I want to (or need to) give my sexual abilities an extra gear, I turn to the advanced supplements. These can be amazingly powerful.
But how do these supplements boost your sexual functions?
They improve sexual functions (mainly) through the increased production of:
- Testosterone, and / or
- Dopamine, and / or
- Nitric oxide
Before we get into the details, I want to address something important:
Supplements will normally only have an effect if you are already deficient.
Meaning, if you take a supplement to increase testosterone, this will normally only have an effect if you are already testosterone deficient.
If on the other hand, your testosterone level is normal, this supplement will normally have no, or very little effect.
In other words, you cannot supercharge your testosterone level. You can only get to baseline.
This is true for both the basic and the advanced supplements.
Let’s investigate the testosterone boosting ability of supplements.
Testosterone Boosting Ability Of Supplements
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone. It underlies, regulates and controls everything sexual that goes on in your body.
Therefore, you need adequate production of testosterone in order to have a sex drive, to get erections, and to function well sexually.
And if you don’t produce enough, your sex-life will most likely suffer.
So how do these supplements boost your testosterone production?
Some do it by containing ingredients that are needed to produce something called DHEA, which is again needed to produce testosterone.
Other by stimulating the production of what is called luteinizing hormone, which is a messenger that instructs your testicles to produce testosterone.
Some by impairing the ability of something called SHBG to bind to testosterone, so that more testosterone is ‘free’ (or unbound to proteins).
If you are testosterone deficient, and you take a supplement to improve your testosterone production, you can expect to get a temporary boost in your testosterone level.
I say temporary because you can only expect the boost for as long as you take the supplement.
If you want to purchase supplements that increase testosterone production, you find them here.
And if you want to learn how to boost testosterone naturally, you can read this guide.
Dopamine Boosting Ability Of Supplements
What is dopamine?
Dopamine is a messenger molecule. It is therefore used to send messages.
When it comes to your sex drive, dopamine’s messages are critical.
Here is how it works:
Let’s say you see a gorgeous woman across the room, and she catches your attention. You find her attractive and you want to connect with her.
What just happened in your brain?
Your brain started to produce dopamine to motivate you to have sex with her.
That’s how your ‘caveman’ brain works. 😂
Needless to say, you wouldn’t normally approach her and attempt to have sex with her (at least not right away), but this is what your brain wants you to do.
Because when your brain wants to motivate you to do procreate, it produces dopamine which then triggers a very strong craving in you.
If there was no dopamine production, you would be indifferent.
That was sex drive. Dopamine is also essential in order to get erections.
When it comes to getting an erection, dopamine is the messenger that kicks things off.
It sends the initial signal in your brain that sets off the entire process, which eventually makes your penis fill with blood so that it becomes erect.
Therefore dopamine is essential in order to get erections.
If your dopamine production is low, and you take a supplement to improve your dopamine production, you can expect to get a temporary boost in your dopamine level.
Some of the supplements that can improve dopamine production are Mucuna Pruriens, L-tyrosine, L-theanine, Rhodiola Rosea and ZMA.
If you want to purchase supplements that increase dopamine production, you find some of them here.
Nitric Oxide Boosting Ability Of Supplements
Nitric oxide is a molecule that is simply necessary in order for you to get an erection.
Let me explain:
Every blood vessel consists of several layers. Think of it as a tube inside a tube inside a tube. One of these layers is a muscle, called smooth muscle.
When your penis is flaccid, these smooth muscles clench around the blood vessels, and therefore squeeze the blood out of your penis.
In order for blood to flow into your penis, these smooth muscles need to relax. And in order for this to happen, nitric oxide needs to be produced and then diffused into the smooth muscles of your penis.
When the smooth muscles relax, the blood vessels open up, which allows blood to flow into your penis.
Therefore, no or inadequate nitric oxide = no or weak erection.
If you are nitric oxide deficient, and you take a supplement that improves your nitric oxide manufacturing, you can expect to get a temporary boost in your nitric oxide production.
If you want to purchase supplements that increase nitric oxide production, you find some here.
But you may ask:
OK, so these advanced supplements have the ability to increase my nitric oxide, testosterone and dopamine procution, but what does that translate to sexually?
How exactly does this affect my sexual functions?
These supplements have three main effects on your sexual functions:
- An increase in sex drive
- Easier to get, harder and longer lasting erections
- Increased sensations from sex
An Increase In Sex Drive From Supplements
Some supplements have the ability to increase your libido.
In other words, they can make you more sexually charged, make you think more about sex, and make you want more sex.
The supplements do this mainly through increased production of testosterone and dopamine, both of which are essential for your sex drive.
You will normally get this effect 1-6 hours or so, after taking the supplements. The effects only lasts a certain amount of time, as your body processes them and washes them out of our body.
However, of the three main effects from these advanced supplements, this is often the weakest one.
Meaning, that for most men, the increase in sex drive is not very pronounced.
The reason most men take these supplements is to ‘get it up’. And also to get stronger, fuller and longer lasting erections.
Easier To Get, Harder And Longer Lasting Erections From Supplements
When these supplements are taken correctly (more about that shortly), they can produce amazing effects.
Firstly, they can help you get erections super easily.
Secondly, they can help you get erections that are very hard and full.
And lastly, give you erections that last practically for as long you want.
In fact, they can produce erections that are on par with those you may get from taking pharmaceutical drugs like Viagra, Cialis and Levitra.
By the way, Viagra, Cialis and Levitra only target the nitric oxide channel.
The advanced supplements target all three: Testosterone, dopamine and nitric oxide (some target one, some two and some all three).
But these supplements can be even better than pharmaceutical drugs.
Firstly, they normally don’t have any negative side effects. So no red face, no runny nose, no funny vision and no headaches.
And secondly, because they can also make the pleasurable sensations from having sex even stronger.
Yeah, they can make sex even more intense. 🤫
Increased Sexual Sensations From Supplements
A pharmaceutical drug like Viagra, Cialis or Levitra only help you ‘get it up’.
But some of these advanced supplements can also amplify the sensations from sex.
Meaning, they can make the pleasurable sensations from sex feel even more intense. The pleasure you experience can be heightened to a level you didn’t know existed before.
So if the best sex you ever had before was a 10 on a scale from 0-10, you might reach 12 with these supplements!
They do this primarily by increasing your testosterone and dopamine production.
In fact, the reason I still take these supplements sometimes (even though I have overcome my ED), is to get these amplified sensations.
Additional Note On The Advanced Supplements
I mentioned this already, but I wanted to stress it again:
When you take these supplements, they normally only give a temporary boost to nitric oxide, testosterone and dopamine.
That is because the supplements are absorbed by your body, deliver their impact, and are then broken down and flushed out of your system.
Hence, if you were to maintain the effects, you would need to keep taking them.
Which also means that they do not fix your underlying problem, they just deliver a temporary boost. Therefore, taking these supplements would not be the ideal long-term solution.
It would be better to find a natural and permanent solution to the deficiency. Normally, you achieve this by getting your body and mind back in balance.
Most of these supplements have another great benefit. They are actually good for you.
Meaning that they (particularly the herbal ones) have several positive effects on your mind and body.
They may reduce certain illnesses, increase sperm quality, can be antibacterial, antiviral, restore hormonal balances, etc.
Compare that to pharmaceutical drugs, which generally only have negative side effects.
My Story With Supplements And Pharmaceutical Drugs
I find supplements absolutely fascinating!
After having experienced the ability of the advanced supplements to give me amazing erections, as well as to amplify the pleasurable sensations from sex, I have become a big admirer and user of these supplements.
And because I have had such amazing effects from many of these advanced supplements, I have dedicated an entire section on Truelibido to them.
In this section, I have profiled my favorite ones. I give you some history and background, the pathways in which they work, the scientific studies that have been done, and also my experience using them.
You find them here.
Let’s talk about pharmaceutical drugs for a minute.
The pharmaceutical drugs, Viagra, Cialis and Levitra (and others), will enable many men with erectile dysfunction to get erections.
I have tried these, and they had the desired effect on me as well (at least initially).
However, I don’t like to take any drug or medication. Whether for a cold or for getting erections.
First of all, I want my body to fix the problem itself. Whether it’s a headache, pain, or a limp penis.
Letting my body fix the problem is likely to make me stronger. It will also teach me to be nicer to myself in the future, so I don’t cause myself the same pain again.
Secondly, I don’t like the side-effects from these drugs.
The pharmaceutical drugs gave me really bad side effects, such as headaches, blurred vision, a red hot face, and a stuffy nose.
A third reason that I don’t like these drugs is that they do nothing that will help you overcome the underlying cause of the problem.
They don’t help you get rid of erectile dysfunction, they only temporarily treat the symptom (inability to get an erection).
So by starting to take these drugs, I was on a path to keep taking them forever..
Therefore, popping a pill right before having sex, was never something I liked doing. It really bothered me, and it was something I really wanted to quit.
The problem at the time? I just didn’t know any other way to get erections.
Therefore, I really wanted to find a long-term, sustainable solution that solved the underlying cause of my problems. A final solution.
And I wanted to find a solution that was natural. I wanted no more pills. No more patches. No more quick solutions.
My first port of call was to search online. And I found a few articles that spoke warmly about an herb used for thousands of years, called gingko biloba.
It was supposedly a great supplement that would help me get and stay rock hard. It sounded like its success was almost guaranteed. So I went ahead and bought a bottle of Gingko Biloba capsules.
I took two capsules a day, as instructed by the label, and had high hopes that I would never ever have any troubles getting erections again.
I waited in anticipation.
But nothing happened.
There was no effect, not even a sliver of improvement. Complete failure.
My first experiment with an herbal remedy was a big disappointment. My frustrations grew.
But I didn’t give up. Instead I stepped it up a notch.
I now started reading, studying and educating myself about erectile dysfunction and libido problems. I really wanted to understand what was happening to my body.
From time to time, I came across rave reviews or articles about herbal remedies. I discarded most of them because of my initial failure. But I also got intrigued from time to time.
Some time after my initial failure, I decided to give it another go.
This time, I bought eight different tinctures of herbal potions that claimed to have fantastic effects on both sexual desire and performance.
My hopes were sky-high as the information from the manufacturer was utterly convincing.
I followed instructions faithfully and again waited in excitement for the effects.
But nothing happened. Not a hint of an effect.
I threw away all the tinctures in frustration.
Although I had experienced nothing but failure so far, a part of me was still convinced that there had to be something to these herbal remedies.
After all, they had been used for thousands of years across several different cultures, and there were many anecdotes and stories of success.
People had been telling and writing about the effects of these remedies for ages.
It couldn’t all be a hoax, could it?
I kept repeating these experiments a few more times. I tried new and different herbal supplements, but was left in disappointment as the effect would never come.
Then I temporarily gave up. Then I tried something new a little later, but failed again.
I started suspecting that all supplements were probably a scam designed to take unsuspecting people’s money.
Until one day.
One day my eyes lit up as I saw a tiny ray of hope. I had purchased a number of different supplements and tried them one by one, this time in capsule form.
And one of these supplements gave me a little something. The herb was called Tribulus Terrestris.
The effect was subtle, but there was something. I was intrigued. This was new!
What I felt was that the sensations from sex were somewhat amplified. A little stronger. And it felt as if I may have also gotten erections slightly easier.
I tried several times to replicate the results. It sometimes worked. But sometimes I didn’t sense any difference.
Although this supplement had some effect, and gave me encouraging feedback, it was not able to solve my ED or libido problems. Therefore I put them away.
Later I also had a similar experience with an herb called Horny Goat Weed.
I took the capsules twice a day as recommended, and I again felt a slight change in the sensations from sex. But it was just as subtle as the effect I had experienced from Tribulus Terrestris.
L-arginine, also gave me a subtle but encouraging effect.
I remember once taking 1.5 grams in the morning before heading to work, and out of no-where, getting an erection on the bus.
This happened more than once, but this was neither able to solve my ED or libido problems.
A couple of years later (after I had once again discarded the supplements), I decided to zoom in on the actions of the past that had yielded a little bit of success.
I wanted to dig deeper to try to find out whether this little success could be expanded, and turned into something that could yield more success.
I had in the past had a tiny bit of success with some of the supplements. So I wanted to explore Tribulus Terrestris and Horny Goat Weed in more detail.
I had a suspicion that the supplements I had taken in the past were simply not potent enough.
So I decided to get some stronger stuff.
I started off by buying a high grade Horny Goat Weed extract.
It contained icariin extracted to 50%, and was in loose powder form.
It was significantly more expensive than any herb I had bought in the past.
I had high hopes that this was going to be the real deal.
I took 250 mg of this extract mixed in a cup of water twice a day, as was the recommendation on the package.
But I felt no effect. Nothing happened. Not even a hint of an effect.
I was again despaired. At this point, I was close to giving up.
But before letting go of my hopes entirely, I wanted to give Tribulus Terrestris a shot.
So I bought a high grade powder version of Tribulus Terrestris, containing saponins extracted to 90%.
But I thought that if I were to take 250 mg twice a day again, nothing would probably happen. It would probably just be another disappointment.
I was looking at the pack of powder, and I thought: ‘Why don’t I just try a whole tablespoon? What’s the worst that can happen..?” 😜
So that’s what I did. I took a table spoon of Tribulus Terrestris (it was almost 10 grams), mixed it in a cup of water and drank it up. This was 40x the recommended dose!
It tasted horrible, absolutely gut wrenching.. 😵
About an hour later, after my girlfriend came back to the apartment, we sat down in the sofa chatting.
We chatted, then hugged and then started kissing.
And all of a sudden, I got a rock hard erection. This never happened! This was new! 😁
Kissing lead to touching, clothes started flying off, and soon we were in our bedroom having sex.
And oh my goodness! This was the most amazing sex I had had for years and years! It was on a different level! 😄
First of all, I had a rock hard erection during the entire intercourse. It was so firm and hard, it was almost frightening. I can’t remember having had such a full and persistent erection for many, many years.
And even after we stopped, it still remained semi-hard for a very long time. This was all new!
But not only was my erection super strong, the sensations from sex were also significantly more intense than normal. 👍
The pleasurable sensations were magnified! The sensations were on a different scale! This was beyond anything I though possible! It was simply amazing!
The effect from this large doze of Tribulus Terrestris was astonishing! Nothing short of absolutely amazing! This was beyond my wildest dreams.
I had finally found an herb that worked!
What an epiphany!
I was stunned at what I had just discovered. I could not believe what just happened. 🙏
After having tried so many herbs in all kinds of forms, I had finally found something that worked! At that moment, I might have just been the happiest man on planet earth!
I kept taking Tribulus Terrestris again and again, and it consistently worked.
Then I went on to experiment with other supplements in a similar way:
Firstly, I educated myself about the supplements, tried to understand which pathways they worked through, what effects they should have on me, safety, etc.
And then I purchased a high grade version of the supplement, took it, and documented the effects.
I have by now found several supplements that give me fantastic experiences. 👍
Let me tell you about my 3 key lessons from taking supplements.
My 3 Key Lessons From Taking Supplements
I have learned that in order for these supplements to have great effects on me, there are 3 ‘things’ that are essential:
Quality Of The Supplements
During the span of more than 10 years, I have purchased a plethora of supplements in capsules, tinctures, loose powder, tea and other forms.
And my experience is that most of these supplements are a waste of money, particularly the herbal ones.
Because the quality of most of the supplements is often simply poor.
In my experience, they have not been very potent.
One reason is that they often don’t contain enough of the active ingredient. Instead, they may contain lots of ‘filler’ ingredients.
Another reason quality is sometimes not great, is because the supplements can be old. They may have been sitting on the shop shelf for a long time, they may have been in a warehouse for a while, and before then, maybe in transport for a while.
Therefore, two years may have passed since the supplement was actually harvested or made.
This lack of quality is a key reason why I had such trouble getting success with supplements. I tried supplements that simply didn’t work!
In other words, I spent lots of time experimenting with supplements that were never going to work in the first place.
No wonder I had no success!
Therefore, when I buy herbal supplements now, I only buy high quality and very potent supplements.
Btw, what I just said about supplements being a waste of money is generally true for herbal supplements. The quality of synthetic supplements such as ZMA or L-arginine for instance, are normally fine, regardless of where I have purchased them.
But there is another key reasons why I struggled getting results with supplements: dosage.
Dosage Of The Supplements
When I took supplements, I took the recommended dosage.
However, I have learned that the recommended dosage, even of the higher quality products, normally doesn’t produce the desirable effect.
I broke the ‘rules’. And I keep breaking them every time I take supplements.
The suggested dose of many supplements is 250 mg.
I take large doses. I often take 7 grams. Which is 28x more. 😉
This gives me great results. And only when I take large doses do I get the desired effects.
Let’s talk about timing? When during the day is it best to take these supplements?
When To Take The Supplements
I have read several articles claiming that in order to get the desired effects from supplements, one should take them consistently over time, and increase the dose gently to let the body adjust to them.
Many of these articles say that the effects of an herbal supplement will only be felt after weeks of use.
That is not the experience I have had. I have tried this several times, but it has not worked for me.
That said, I am not discarding any effects from long-term, steady use.
However, my experience is that these supplements, both herbal and synthetic ones, produce amazing effects when taken about 90 minutes (or even a 2-3 hours) before sex.
I have only had great effects when I have taken these supplements shortly before sex. Taking them in the morning, when I have sex in the evening for instance, has not worked for me.
So to summarize:
My experience is that in order to achieve great effects from supplements, there are three key principles:
- I only use high quality and very potent supplements
- I take them in large doses
- I take them about 90 minutes before sex
Which Supplements Do I Take? Do I Take One Or Several At The Same Time?
When I take supplements, I typically always take a combination of four different ones.
Taking only one can work just fine, but when I combine more than one, I normally get incredible results.
This is what I normally take:
A base consisting of L-citrulline (7 g), Pine bark (7 g) and ZMA (0.75 g). On top of this, I normally also take one herbal supplement (7 g), such as Tribulus Terrestris, Tongkat Ali, Horny Goat Weed, or Fenugreek.
For me, this combination produces erections on par with what I got from taking pharmaceutical drugs like Viagra.
But that is not the only effect I get from these supplements.
As I mentioned above, these supplements can have three different effect. And when I combine them, I typically always get all three of these effects.
Which means I get a slight boost to my libido, I get super strong erections, and a very noticeable increase in the intensity of the pleasurable sensations from sex.
Should You Take Supplements?
Well, that is a choice for you to make, of course.
However, I would say that you should not look at these supplements as the cure for your erectile dysfunction or libido problems.
Because they will not fix the underlying problem. They will only give you a temporary boost.
If you want to learn how to cure erectile dysfunction naturally, you can read this guide.
However, they can be incredibly useful in several ways.
Firstly, you can use them to test whether your sexual functions are alive or not.
If you normally are not able to ‘get it up’, but you do with the help of supplements, you will 1) know that your sexual functions are working, and 2) you will have gotten a clue as to what the problem is (low testosterone for instance).
Secondly, you can use them in periods when you struggle more sexually than normal, to get a boost.
And lastly, you can use them when you want to heighten your sexual experience.
However, if you do consider doing what I do, which is to take large dozes, I encourage you to read the section below about safety.
A Few Words About Safety
Is it safe to take these supplements in the doses that I have been taking?
In the combination I mentioned above, there would be 3×7 grams + 0.75 grams, which is more than 20 grams.
Is this not too much?
The answer is that I simply don’t know. I am also not aware of any reputable studies that have looked into these supplements in large dozes.
Neither am I a doctor. I am just a guy that has done a lot of experimentation. 😊
What I can say however, after having taken supplements in these doses for several years, is that I have never noticed any negative side-effects or experiences.
Even when I have taken them 3 times a week, I noticed no negative effects.
However, it’s of course possible that there could be accumulated negative effects that will only present themselves in time.
Also, even if I have never experienced any negative effects, that does not mean that these are 100% safe. I simply don’t know.
Should you want to try these supplements in these doses, it is possible that your body will react differently. It is therefore possible that you may experience negative side effects.
Therefore, if you choose to take any of these supplements, you do this 100% at your own risk.
Adimoelja A. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions. Int J Androl 2000; 23:82-84.
Balasubramanian A, Thirumavalavan N, Srivatsav A, Yu J, Hotaling JM, Lipshultz LI, Pastuszak AW. An Analysis of Popular Online Erectile Dysfunction Supplements. J Sex Med. 2019 Jun;16(6):843-852. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.03.269. Epub 2019 Apr 26.
Bella AJ, Shamloul R. Traditional plant aphrodisiacs and male sexual dysfunction. Phytother Res. 2014 Jun; 28(6):831-5.
Bird JK, Murphy RA, Ciappio ED, McBurney MI. Risk of Deficiency in Multiple Concurrent Micronutrients in Children and Adults in the United States. Nutrients. 2017 Jun 24;9(7):655. doi: 10.3390/nu9070655.
Borrelli F, Colalto C, Delfino DV, Iriti M, Izzo AA. Herbal Dietary Supplements for Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Drugs. 2018 Apr;78(6):643-673. DOI: 10.1007/s40265-018-0897-3.
Bourre JM. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006 Sep-Oct; 10(5):377-85.
Brioni JD, Moreland RB, Cowart M, Hsieh GC, Stewart AO, Hedlund P, Roberts DLD, Nakane M, Lynch JJ, Kolasa T, Polakowski JS, Osinski MA, Marsh K, Andersson KE, Sullivan JP. Activation of dopamine D4 receptors by ABT-724 induces penile erection in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 27; 101(17): 6758–6763. Published online 2004 Apr 15. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0308292101.
Cartledge J, Minhas S, Eardley I. The role of nitric oxide in penile erection. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2001 Jan;2(1):95-107. doi: 10.1517/14656522.214.171.124.
Chauhan NS, Sharma V, Dixit VK, Thakur M. A review on plants used for improvement of sexual performance and virility. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:868062. DOI: 10.1155/2014/868062.
Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of a High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul-Sep; 34(3): 255–262. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.106022.
Dickson JM, Naylor G, Colver G, Powers HJ, Masters P. Multiple vitamin deficiencies in a patient with a history of chronic alcohol excess and self-neglect in the UK. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Sep 22; 2014. PII: bcr2014204523. DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2014-204523.
Drewes SE, George J, Khan F. Recent findings on natural products with erectile-dysfunction activity. Phytochemistry 2003; 62:1019-1025.
Ernst E, Posadzki P, Lee MS. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction in older men and women: an overview of systematic reviews. Maturitas. 2011 Sep; 70(1):37-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.06.011.
Ernst E. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: Ginkgo, St. John’s Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Jan 1; 136(1):42-53.
Gil M, Głodek E, Rudy M. Evaluation of the dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in the daily food rations by the students of the Rzeszów University. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012;63(4):441-6.
Graf H, Malejko K, Metzger CD, Walter M, Grön G, Abler B. Serotonergic, Dopaminergic, and Noradrenergic Modulation of Erotic Stimulus Processing in the Male Human Brain. J Clin Med. 2019 Mar; 8(3): 363. Published online 2019 Mar 14. doi: 10.3390/jcm8030363
Guirguis WR. Oral treatment of erectile dysfunction: from herbal remedies to designer drugs. J Sex Marital Ther 1998; 24:69-73.
Ho CC, Tan HM. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management. Curr Urol Rep. 2011 Dec; 12(6):470-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11934-011-0217.
Kang HH, Choi YH, Kwon H, Lee SB, Kim DH,Sung CK, Park YI, Dong MS. Estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of a Epimedium koreanum extract and its major components: in vitro and in vivo studies. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 50, Issue 8, August 2012, Pages 2751-2759.
Kennedy ET, Bowman SA, Spence JT, Freedman M, King J. Popular diets: correlation to health, nutrition, and obesity. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Apr; 101(4):411-20.
Leblanc JC, Yoon H, Kombadjian A, Verger P. Nutritional intakes of vegetarian populations in France. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 May; 54(5):443-9.
Lee JK, Tan RB, Chung E. Erectile dysfunction treatment and traditional medicine-can East and West medicine coexist? Transl Androl Urol. 2017 Feb; 6(1):91-100. DOI: 10.21037/tau.2016.11.13.
MacKay, D. Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: Examining the evidence. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar; 9(1):4-16.
Malviya N, Jain S, Gupta VB, Vyas S. Recent studies on aphrodisiac herbs for the management of male sexual dysfunction–a review. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011 Jan-Feb; 68(1):3-8.
Moyad MA. Dietary supplements and other alternative medicines for erectile dysfunction. What do I tell my patients? Urol Clin North Am. 2002 Feb; 29(1):11-22, vii.
Nassar GN, Raudales F, Leslie SW. Physiology, Testosterone. StatPearls.
Neufeld LM, Jalal CS, Peña-Rosas JP, Tovey D, Lutter CK, Stoltzfus RJ, Habicht JP. The WHO evidence-informed guideline development process and implications for vitamin and mineral research priorities: symposium rationale and summary. Adv Nutr. 2013 Sep 1; 4(5):557-9. DOI: 10.3945/an.113.004291.
Park HJ, Lee KS, Lee EK, Park NC. Efficacy and Safety of a Mixed Extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed and Lespedeza cuneata in the Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. World J Mens Health. 2018 Sep;36(3):230-238. doi: 10.5534/wjmh.170004. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
Pavin NF, Izaguirry AP, Soares MB, Spiazzi CC, Mendez ASL, Leivas FG, Brum DDS, Cibin FWS. Tribulus terrestris Protects against Male Reproductive Damage Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Aug 28;2018:5758191. doi: 10.1155/2018/5758191. eCollection 2018.
Pratap SA, Rajender S. Potent natural aphrodisiacs for the management of erectile dysfunction and male sexual debilities. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2012 Jan 1; 4:167-80.
Rowland DL, Tai W. A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. J Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May-Jun; 29(3):185-205.
Salve J, Pate S, Debnath K, Langade D. Adaptogenic and Anxiolytic Effects of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Healthy Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study. Cureus. 2019 Dec; 11(12): e6466. Dec 25. doi: 10.7759/cureus.6466.
Shah GR, Chaudhari MV, Patankar SB, Pensalwar SV, Sabale VP, Sonawane NA. Evaluation of a multi-herb supplement for erectile dysfunction: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Sep 15;12:155. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-155.
Shamloul R. Natural aphrodisiacs. J Sex Med. 2010 Jan; 7(1 Pt 1):39-49. DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01521.
Shatenstein B, Nadon S, Godin C, Ferland G. Diet quality of Montreal-area adults needs improvement: estimates from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire furnishing a dietary indicator score. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Aug; 105(8):1251-60.
Talbott SM, Talbott JA, George A, Pugh M. Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 May 26;10(1):28. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-28.
Tamler R, Mechanick JI. Dietary supplements and nutraceuticals in the management of andrologic disorders. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007 Jun; 36(2):533-52.
Watanabe R, Hanamori K, Kadoya H, Nishimuta M, Miyazaki H. Nutritional intakes in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: high intakes of energy and protein based on high consumption of fish, vegetables and fruits provide sufficient micronutrients. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2004 Jun; 50(3):184-95.